By Rik Brydson
The ebook is anxious with the speculation, heritage, and functional use of transmission electron microscopes with lens correctors that could right the results of round aberration. The e-book additionally covers a comparability with aberration correction within the TEM and purposes of analytical aberration corrected STEM in fabrics technological know-how and biology. This e-book is vital for microscopists interested in nanoscale and fabrics microanalysis in particular these utilizing scanning transmission electron microscopy, and comparable analytical ideas akin to electron diffraction x-ray spectrometry (EDXS) and electron strength loss spectroscopy (EELS).
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Additional info for Aberration-corrected Analytical Electron Microscopy
2 nm to take a significant fraction of the beam intensity to the next atom columns. Bear in mind that most specimens are actually thicker than the weak phase object regime, and that beam spreading would be greater than implied by the Goldstein approach. However Goldstein accounts for electrons scattered in all directions, each of which could excite an X-ray. Not all of these electrons could enter an EELS spectrometer, so for EELS the equation might overestimate beam broadening. Strengthening what was said at the beginning of the paragraph, beam spreading is difficult to estimate, never mind calculate!
These requirements imply that, for most materials to be imaged or analysed at atomic-column resolution, the appropriate thickness will lie in the range up to 50 nm. It would also be helpful if specimens prepared from the bulk could be perfectly flat and parallel-sided with no contamination or surface amorphised layer, while nano-particles could be of regular shape (so that their thickness is calculable from their projected shape and size). Every specimen should resist both ionization damage and displacement damage by the primary beam.
The ﬁrst anode, sitting at a potential of about 4 kV with respect to the tip, is used to extract the electrons from a very small region of the cold tip. Hence the overall brightness is very high (109 Amp cm−2 /per unit solid angle (Steradian, sr)), although the total current emitted is relatively low (1–10 µA). Care is also needed with the design of the ﬁrst anode/tip conﬁguration to ensure that extra aberrations are not introduced and that the energy spread of the beam is not degraded by the Boersch effect (bunching of electrons) (Boersch, 1954).
Aberration-corrected Analytical Electron Microscopy by Rik Brydson