By Phyllis R. Brown, Eli Grushka
An up to date reference, delivering an leading edge standpoint on breakthroughs in separation technological know-how, akin to reverse-phase HPLC, advances in hyphenation, and linear dependence of relative retention values at the nature of the service gasoline and typical column strain in gas-liquid chromatography.
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Extra resources for Advances in Chromatography: Volume 41
The electroosmotic mobility observed with these packings is not significantly reduced compared to packings with material of larger mean particle diameter. Regarding the plate-height equation for a packed column (pressure-driven mobile phase) [23–25], H ϭ 2λp dp ϩ 2γ DM (1 ϩ 6k ϩ 11k 2 )d 2p 8kd 2F ϩ v v ϩ v 24(1 ϩ k) 2 Dm π 2 (1 ϩ k) 2 Ds (4) where H ϭ height of a theoretical plate, λp ϭ packing factor, dp ϭ mean particle diameter, γ ϭ labyrinth factor, v ϭ linear velocity of mobile phase, DM ϭ diffusion coefficient in the mobile phase, k ϭ retention factor of solute, dF ϭ effective film thickness of the stationary phase, and DS ϭ diffusion coefficient in the stationary phase, the tremendous impact of the mean particle diameter on the chromatographic efficiency obtainable with a given column is obvious.
Due to the use of injection valves with constant injected sample volume and pumps with constant volume flow, in HPLC the maximum sample volume given in volume units is of interest in dependence on the peak volume. These magnitudes are rather inconvenient in capillary electrochromatography. In CEC the sample is in most cases injected directly onto the column via the controlled application of a voltage (electrokinetic injection), and the velocity of the mobile phase is given not as flow rate (volume/time) but as linear velocity (distance/time) determined via a nonretarded marker.
Also, voltage programming is reported as an alternative to mobile-phase composition gradient programming . It has to be emphasized, however, that this technique is of limited applicability, as no variation in the retention factor is achieved by voltage gradients. V. MOBILE-PHASE CONSIDERATIONS Not only surface properties of the stationary phase but also bulk properties of the mobile phase determine the electroosmotic mobility in the chromatographic bed. Hence, in CEC, optimization of the composition of the mobile phase must consider not only retention of solutes and selectivity of the chromatographic system (as in HPLC) but also observed electroosmotic mobility and achieved chromatographic efficiency.
Advances in Chromatography: Volume 41 by Phyllis R. Brown, Eli Grushka