By Gary (Ed.) Haynes, Gary Haynes
The quantity includes summaries of evidence, theories, and unsolved difficulties concerning the unexplained extinction of dozens of genera of commonly huge terrestrial mammals, which happened ca. 13,000 calendar years in the past in North the US and approximately 1,000 years later in South the USA. one other both mysterious wave of extinctions affected huge Caribbean islands round 5,000 years in the past. The coupling of those extinctions with the earliest visual appeal of humans has resulted in the recommendation that foraging people are accountable, even though significant climatic shifts have been additionally occurring within the Americas in the course of the various extinctions. The final released quantity with related (but now not exact) issues -- Extinctions in close to Time -- seemed in 1999; due to the fact then loads of cutting edge, interesting new learn has been performed yet has no longer but been compiled and summarized. assorted chapters during this quantity offer in-depth resum?s of the chronology of the extinctions in North and South the United States, the potential insights into animal ecology supplied through experiences of good isotopes and anatomical/physiological features equivalent to progress increments in titanic and mastodont tusks, the clues from taphonomic examine approximately large-mammal biology, the purposes of relationship tips on how to the extinctions debate, and archeological controversies pertaining to human searching of huge mammals.
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This suggested that all of the ivory had 28 been scavenged from long-dead animals. However, a date of 11,540 ± 140 BP has been obtained on ivory collagen from Broken Mammoth, and another date of 12,060 ± 60 BP for ivory from Swan Point, indicating contemporaneity of living mammoths with the earliest human settlers. A recent Bayesian analysis of the Alaskan radiocarbon record suggests that the date of horse extinction is ca. 14,200 cal bp, “broadly contemporary with the arrival of humans in the area,” while extinction of woolly mammoth occurred later, ca.
At first glance, Guthrie’s dates would lead one to conclude that mammoths had gone abruptly extinct in eastern Beringia at 11,500 BP. , 1998). On Wrangel Island, off the north coast of Siberia, the last date for a small mammoth is 3,685 ± 60 BP. On St. Paul Island, one of the Pribilof Islands located in the Bering Sea, 500 km off the Alaska coast, dates of 7,908 ± 100, 8,015 ± 85, and 8,010 ± 40 BP were obtained for split samples of one mammoth bone (Guthrie, 2004). An even later age of ca. , 2005).
Institute for Wildlife Studies, Arcata, CA, pp 3–7 Alberdi MT, Miotti L, Prado JL (2001) Hippidion saldiasi Roth, 1899 (Equidae, Perissodactyla), at the Piedra Museo site (Santa Cruz, Argentina): Its implication for the regional economy and environmental reconstruction. J Archaeol Sci 28:411–419 Arnold TG (2002) Radiocarbon dates from the ice-free corridor. Radiocarbon 44(2):437–454 Arslanov Kh, Cook A, Steinar Gulliksen GT, Harkness DD, Kankainen T, Scott EM, Vartanyan S, Zaitseva GI (1998) Consensus dating of mammoth remains from Wrangel Island.
American Megafaunal Extinctions at the End of the Pleistocene (Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology) by Gary (Ed.) Haynes, Gary Haynes