By Leslie Aiello
An anthropologist and an anatomist have mixed their talents during this e-book to supply scholars and study staff with the necessities of anatomy and the capability to use those to investigations into hominid shape and serve as. utilizing simple rules and proper bones, conclusions may be reached in regards to the possible musculature, stance, mind measurement, age, weight, and intercourse of a selected fossil specimen. one of these deductions that are attainable are illustrated by means of reference again to modern apes and people, and a coherent photo of the background of hominid evolution seems to be. Written in a transparent and concise type and wonderfully illustrated, An advent to Human Evolutionary Anatomy is a easy reference for all interested in human evolution in addition to a helpful better half to either laboratory useful classes and new learn utilizing fossil skeletons
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Extra info for An Introduction to Human Evolutionary Anatomy
Pterion is another site in the cranium where sutual bones commonly form. In this region they are known as epipteric bones and there is some evidence that they may be more common on the left side of the modern human cranium and, therefore, possibly linked with asym metries of the vault bones (Aitchison, 1960). In great apes and some fossil hominids the lesser wings of the sphenoid bone are not so extensive and form a smaller proportion of the floor of the anterior cranial fossa and so do not reach the pterion.
This example is developed further and illustrated in Chapter 19. Second class levers have the fulcrum at one end of the lever and the applied force at the other, with the load situated between them. This is the principle on which weight is lifted in a wheelbarrow. The example illustrated in Fig. 11 shows how the foot and calf muscles can act as a second class lever. Second class levers gain mechanical advantage thereby allowing large loads to be moved but only at the expense of a loss of speed.
Sec ondary osteons continue to replace bone that is resorbed throughout the life of an individual and many generations of secondary osteons can be seen in sections of older human bone. Estimates of the number of secondary osteons have been used to provide estimates of the age at death of Neanderthals (Thompson and Trinkaus, 1987) and comparisons with modern humans suggest that none were much older than 35 years at death. Remnants of woven bone, primary osteons and earlier formed secondary osteons that fail to become resorbed constitute the interstitial bone.
An Introduction to Human Evolutionary Anatomy by Leslie Aiello