By Ralph Mark Rosen, Ineke Sluiter
An exam of a significant notion within the self-definition of any Greek-speaking male: "Andreia", the idea of braveness and manliness. via a mixture of lexical or semantic and conceptual experiences the discourse of manliness and its position within the development of social order is explored.
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Additional info for Andreia: Studies in Manliness and Courage in Classical Antiquity
The account of this devel opment includes a consideration of anêr compounds in epic, of andreia and related terms in ﬁfth-century Athenian drama and historiogra phy, and ﬁnally of Plato and Aristotle’s discussions of ‘political man liness’ (andreia politikê ) in the fourth century BCE. e. 1 This restriction is purposeful since conclusions that take these English (or French or German) equivalents as their starting point often elide the speciﬁcity of the Greek lexicon. e. 2 The semantic history of manliness is one in which what it means to 1 For a general comprehensive study of ‘courage’ as a Greek virtue, see Smoes 1995.
Tå går t°knÉ aÈt«n ÖAreow §kkremãnnutai, tå dÉ eÈprep∞ dØ kÒsmow §n xoro›w mÒnon. The ironies of this gruesome scene are obvious: the address to a corpse that focuses on his physical beauty, the comparison of a future husband with a mother’s lover, etc. 52 But here andreios conﬂates martial and sexual acts and a ‘manly disposition’ is no more than a kind of mirror image for Aegisthus’ girlish good looks. Electra’s half-hidden desire for a father who resembles the god of war and a husband who resembles her father is, in both cases, the desire for an absent and god-like anêr.
Its applicability to Penelope’s suitors, deﬁned by their gluttony and oﬀensive physical presence, demonstrates the extent of its negative 25 There seem to be no admonitions to “Be a man” in the singular in Homer. Cf. éntiãneira, an epithet of the Amazons (Il. 186); and eÈÆnvr as a modiﬁer of bronze (Od. 19) and wine (Od. 622). 27 Chantraine 1968–80, 88. See Lloyd 1983, 14 on the ‘physical’ nature of the cuxÆ. 26 ROSEN/F3/25-58 10/1/02 2:11 PM Page 35 35 semantic range.
Andreia: Studies in Manliness and Courage in Classical Antiquity by Ralph Mark Rosen, Ineke Sluiter