By F. S. Bodenheimer (auth.)
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A heliohydrogram, showing APRIL RAINFALL (INCHES} the number of pheasant nests per 100 75 PHEASANTS acres as recorded in WOOO CO, OHIO northwestern Ohio the year following the one plotted. ) andrainin April (recorded l' fall at Bowling Green, 01 ' 1 hio). The interaction - ofthesefactorsappears OPTIMUM to have had an im. portant influence on , 40 the size of population. g. 5 inches of ra in; the data are too few but the ellipses shown follow the general pattern of such relationships. Optimum conditions, based on the largest number of nests, are in the center.
In the best case, we may be able to circumscribe an optimal, favourable, unfavourable, and impossible climatic zone. Whenever this zonation is based on sufficiently large empirical data it becomes highly important for the understanding of seasonal fluctuation, local gradation, and geographical distribution. We shall give a few illustrations. Fig. 9 shows regional climograms of the various citrusgrowing zones in Israel with regard to the Oriental Red Spider Anychus latus. The inner rectangle designat es the optimal zone, the outer rectangle (broken line) the limit of the favourable zone for this mite.
Sealed brood; 4. nurse bees; 5. house bees; 6. field bees. Dotted line (A): Actually counted population showing the numbers of actually hibernating adults. Observe the delayed summer peak, showing the slow beginning of the annual increase (From BoDENHEIMER, 1942). where a = age of population in days, e = constant daily oviposition rate. The age-distribution after the 63rd day is of the typical bell shape of a stagnant population. The age-structure of a population serves, if the bionomic constants for the species are known, as an important indicator of the character of the life-table of the population concerned.
Animal Ecology To-Day by F. S. Bodenheimer (auth.)