Animal Life at Low Temperature by John Davenport PDF

By John Davenport

ISBN-10: 940105035X

ISBN-13: 9789401050357

ISBN-10: 9401123446

ISBN-13: 9789401123440

To people, chilly has a surprisingly confident caliber. 'Frostbite', 'a nip within the air', 'biting cold', all show the idea that of chilly as an entity which assaults the physique, numbing and destructive it within the procedure. most likely the richness of descriptive English during this quarter stems from the early reports of a gaggle of primarily tropical apes, making their dwelling on a chilly and windswept island workforce part­ approach among the Equator and the Arctic. in the course of a systematic schooling we quickly examine that there's no such factor as chilly, in basic terms a lack of warmth. chilly doesn't invade us; warmth easily deserts. Later nonetheless we come to understand that temperature is a mirrored image of kinetic power, and that the volume of kinetic power in a procedure is dependent upon the rate of molecular stream. regardless of this attention, it really is tough to desert the practical prejudices of palaeolithic Homo sapiens shivering in his huts and caves. for instance; appreciating polar undergo is maybe as cozy while swimming from ice floe to ice floe as we're while swimming in the summertime Mediterranean isn't effortless; figuring out the thermal sensa­ tions of a 'cold-blooded' earthworm nearly very unlikely. we should be cautious of an anthropocentric angle whilst contemplating the consequences of chilly on different species.

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Polynyas can be highly productive, because the thin, translucent ice which forms in them (before being blown away into the pack) acts as a substratum for rapid diatom growth. 8 Characteristics of sustained polynas. Polynyas are areas of open water in pack ice. Most are ephemeral, but coastal polynyas form regularly in areas where katabatic winds flow down the ice cap and continually drive newly formed sea ice away into the pack. The formation of sea ice from sea water results in the formation of cold water of heightened salinity; this sinks, causing circulation within the polynya; conditions which favour high productivity in the spring.

The causes of these epochs are essentially unknown, but numerous galactic and cosmological theories have been advanced (see Pearson, 1978 for review). 1 Episodes of glaciation recognized by Steiner and Grillmair (1973). Note that each episode may have involved numerous ice ages. The ranges of age quoted are derived from observations in several continents Absolute age range (million years before present) Glacial epoch Gowganda glaciation Infracambrian II Infracambrian I Eocambrian Siluro-Ordovician Permo-Carboniferous Late Cenozoic 2200-2460 900-1000 715-825 560-680 410-470 235-340 0-14 To return to consideration of more recent periods, where knowledge of climate and its causes is more satisfactory; during the Tertiary, average global temperatures were apparently stable and high, peaking in the Eocene (40-50 million years before present) at about 22°C, but steadily falling thereafter to a value of around l2SC at the beginning of the Quaternary (Nilsson, 1983).

In consequence the uncontrolled heat output of active brown fat can be many times that of the inactive tissue. Heat produced in brown adipose tissue is quickly carried away to other parts of the body by the rich blood supply and drainage. Heat production by the activity of brown fat is a major component of 'nonshivering thermogenesis' (NST) a term used to distinguish heat producing biochemical processes from the heat production due to non-locomotory muscular activity ('shivering thermogenesis').

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Animal Life at Low Temperature by John Davenport


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