By Kash L. Mittal, J. Drelich, Laskowski
This e-book chronicles the complaints of the overseas Symposium on obvious and Microscopic touch Angles, held together with the yankee Chemical Society assembly in Boston, August 24-27, 1998. The e-book is split into 4 elements: Nanoscopic and Molecular results on touch Angles; floor Forces and floor unfastened power; Wetting of Heterogeneous, tough and Curved Surfaces; Dynamic results involved attitude Measurements. one of the issues coated are: touch line stress size; liquid drop floor topography; molecular mechanisms of hydrophobic transitions; stereochemical and conformational features of polymer surfaces; decision of acid-base homes of steel oxides and polymers via touch perspective dimension; van Oss--Good conception of acid-base floor unfastened energies; AFM dimension of forces; skinny liquid motion pictures; wettability of flat and curved surfaces; touch perspective hysteresis; elements affecting touch perspective meassurements; dynamic wetting habit; and impression of surfactants on wetting.
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Additional info for Apparent and Microscopic Contact Angles
The thickness of the coating was 500- 1000 nm as determined by a profilometer. Only fresh coatings, prepared a few hours before taking the contact angle measurements, were used in this study. 2- 1 wt% concentration). The PE-toluene solution was spread on a glass slide and kept in a vacuum oven for 3-4 h at a temperature of 60-65°C. The glass with the PE coating was used in contact angle measurements after cooling it down to room temperature. Coal specimens (a few centimeters in size) from a Mexican power plant (Micare) were carefully selected for contact angle measurements to avoid specimens with 30 J.
These liquids have a nonvanishing contact angle on silicon without any cleaning procedures. We found, too, that (hydrophobic) tips produced by electron beam deposition of carbon [36, 371 of small radius of curvature were favorable for the imaging of liquids. 5. CONCLUSION In conclusion, we have introduced a model of intermittent neck formation which describes the damping mechanism in the tapping mode on liquid surfaces. Based on both the qualitative and the quantitative agreement with our experimental findings as well as those of other research groups, we believe that despite its simplicity, it captures the essential physics involved in this process.
After deformation, if the internal contact angle remains the same, the apparent contact angle changes, as shown in Fig 11: it decreases or increases depending on the location of the three-phase contact line on the deformation. The system will remain unstable as long as the deformation of the material and the position of the contact line establish a compromising (energetically favorable) configuration. Contact angle relaxation + - 43 - - - - - - - Figure 11. Simplified illustration of instability of the three-phase contact line region (probably a several micrometers-wide region, at most) on a soft solid.
Apparent and Microscopic Contact Angles by Kash L. Mittal, J. Drelich, Laskowski