By Nigel Saunders, Angela Saunders, Sandra Clinton, Max Parsonage, Emma Poole
Fresh, updated chemistry textual content for the recent AQA AS Chemistry specification beginning in 2008. Emphasises How technological know-how Works and is deal to follow-on from GCSE as a hugely obtainable textual content for complicated examine.
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The molecular constitution hypothesis--that a molecule is a suite of atoms associated by way of a community of bonds-- presents the central technique of ordering and classifying observations in chemistry. even though this speculation isn't similar on to the physics which governs the motions of atomic nuclei and electrons.
Prof. Dr. -Ing. Reinhard Seeling - Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen
Extra resources for AS Chemistry for AQA: Student Book
F 90° F 90° F F S F F The sulfur hexafluoride molecule is octahedral. 06 More shapes of molecules There may be one or more lone pairs of electrons around a central atom in a molecule. These affect the shape and bond angles of the molecule. OBJECTIVES Strength of repulsion already from AS Level, you •u nderstand the concept of bonding pairs of electrons as charge clouds • c an predict the shapes of simple molecules and their bond angles and after this spread you should You will recall that each pair of electrons acts as a cloud of negative charge.
Boron and aluminium are in Group 3 and both can have vacant orbitals in their compounds. As a result, these elements are frequently involved in examination questions about co-ordinate bonding. For example, H3N→BCl3, H3N→AlCl3 and H3N→AlF3 would have identical dot and cross diagrams to H3N→BF3 (apart from the atom symbols of course). Cl Al Cl Cl Al Cl Cl The bonding in the aluminium chloride dimer. 03_04_AW_04 Polyatomic ions A polyatomic ion is a charged particle consisting of two or more atoms joined together by covalent bonds.
Draw dot and cross diagrams for the formation of these ionic The reaction between sodium and chlorine is very vigorous. 03_01_AW_01 Remember that there is no difference between electrons shown with a dot and those shown with a cross. The dots and crosses just help you keep track of where the electrons have come from. Ionic bonds and lattices Compounds that are made up of ions are called ionic compounds. There is a strong electrostatic force of attraction between oppositely charged ions in an ionic compound.
AS Chemistry for AQA: Student Book by Nigel Saunders, Angela Saunders, Sandra Clinton, Max Parsonage, Emma Poole