By Jacques Guyot
The purpose of this booklet is to offer as thoroughly as attainable an outline of the joints of the human limbs, utilizing photos and drawings of anatomical dissections. current descriptive anatomical money owed are frequently theoretical and never associated with useful job of the joints involved; they lack useful demonstra tion of the anatomy. we are hoping to fill the distance within the on hand literature through presentation of this booklet. The paintings is directed in the direction of anatomists, medical professionals attracted to joint pathology, orthopaedic surgeons, rheumatologists, radiologists, experts in game accidents and rehabilitation, additionally to physicians often, physiotherapists and scholars. The ebook is split into seven chapters. each one bankruptcy includes components: the 1st is a short account of the useful anatomy of the joint. It doesn't provide a whole description yet an total precis of the practical buildings concerned. the second one part, the most half, comprises illustrations (drawings and images of anatomical dissections). The dissections and the pictures have been ready within the division of Anatomy directed via Professor HENRI M. DUVERNaY from cadaveric specimens preserved via the strategy defined by way of WINCKLER (1964). the method of dissecting the ligamentous constructions round joints has proved techni cally tricky. you can still create artificially constructions from the mass of fibrous tissue and on a couple of events we have now been not able to find ligaments that are defined in a few anatomical money owed.
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2 Central Group This group is composed of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments which span the area between the intercondylar notch of the femur and the intercondylar area of the tibia. These ligaments sometimes labeled as the "central pivot ", guide the movement of the femoral condyles. The anterior cruciate ligament limits a forward movement during flexion while the posterior controls backward displacement during extension. They constitute the means for a gliding movement allowing a possible interlocking during rolling.
A ligamentous layer comprising the fibular collateral ligament joined behind to the arcuate popliteal ligament and forming the posterolateral corner of the joint. - A muscular layer associated from front to back with the iliotibial tract, the numerous expansions of the biceps femoris muscle which have been well described by Marschall et al. (1972) (Figs. 15-17), and finally with the popliteus muscle. 2 Central Group This group is composed of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments which span the area between the intercondylar notch of the femur and the intercondylar area of the tibia.
2 Functional Anatomy Stabilization is a major problem in the knee. When extension is complete, the joint is mechanically stable. Tibial axial rotation is inhibited on account of the articular surface profile which ensures the "screw home mechanism" and the general tightening of all the capsuloligamentous structures. This association assures the close-packed position of the knee joint. In contrast, when the knee is flexed, stabilization must still be achieved in all planes: Antero-posterior stabilization depends on the cruciate ligaments, the posterior ligaments, and both extensor and flexor muscles; Transverse stabilization is assured by the collateral ligaments, the tendons forming the pes anserinus, and the tensor fasciae latae.
Atlas of Human Limb Joints by Jacques Guyot