By John Wolstenholme
This publication discusses using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and scanning Auger microscopy for the characterization of quite a lot of technological fabrics, together with, metals and alloys, semiconductors, nanostructures, and insulators. Its price as a device for high-resolution elemental imaging and compositional intensity profiling is illustrated and the application of the strategy for acquiring compositional info from the surfaces, interfaces, and skinny movie constructions of technological and engineering fabrics is validated. This quantity additionally describes the elemental actual rules of AES in uncomplicated, principally qualitative phrases. significant elements of commonplace Auger spectrometers also are defined. The publication discusses different kinds of research for which an Auger electron spectrometer can be used, for instance, secondary electron microscopy, backscattered electron imaging, X-ray spectroscopy, in addition to the connection among AES and different research thoughts
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Additional resources for Auger electron spectroscopy : practical application to materials analysis and characterization of surfaces, interfaces, and thin films
This is the reason why AES is a surface analysis technique; the solid material of the sample effectively filters out the Auger electrons emitted from the atoms in the bulk of the material. The secondary electron emission is made up of very low-energy electrons. 6, the AL increases with decreasing kinetic energy for energies less than about 50 eV. The reason for this is that such low-energy electrons are less capable of undergoing inelastic collisions. 7. The origin of each type of radiation shown in relation to the primary excitation volume.
14. The ionization cross-section, a generalized curve using the overvoltage, which is the ratio of the primary beam energy and the critical excitation voltage. 15. The relative yield of Auger electrons (KLL, LMM, and MNN) and X-rays (K, L, and M) from an ionized, excited atom. The excited ion will relax to a ground state either by emitting an Auger electron or by emitting an X-ray photon and so the sum of the two cross-sections is unity. 15 shows the relative yield of Auger electrons and X-ray photons from an ionized atom as a function of atomic number.
The net result of this is that there exists a “primary excitation volume,” which is the volume of the sample affected by the primary beam in such a way that the atoms within it become ionized, enter a more energetic state, or emit some form of radiation. 2. When the atomic number, Z, is small, or the primary beam energy is large, or both, the shape of the excitation volume resembles that of an electric light bulb. Where the primary beam strikes the surface, an area slightly larger (by a few nanometers) than beam diameter becomes excited.
Auger electron spectroscopy : practical application to materials analysis and characterization of surfaces, interfaces, and thin films by John Wolstenholme