By Andrzej Środoń, Kazimierz Tobolski (auth.), Mark G. Tjoelker, Adam Boratyński, Władysław Bugała (eds.)
Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) is a crucial tree species with a impressive usual variety all through Europe and Asia, starting from the Balkan Peninsula to Siberia within the north and from the French Alps within the west to the ocean of Okhotsk within the east. anyplace it happens, it's a key portion of either traditional and controlled forests. Norway spruce is the main economically useful conifer in Europe, generating top of the range bushes and wooden items.
This booklet offers a concise and complete overview of the biology, ecology, and administration of Norway spruce. It integrates vintage and modern literature (more than 2000 works pointed out within the text), highlighting uncomplicated study and forestry practices in imperative and japanese Europe. the subjects comprise anatomy and morphology, body structure and food, reproductive biology and genetics, and ecology.
In addition, it examines mycorrhiza, ailments and pests in addition to silviculture and wooden items. within the mild of accelerating threats to woodland wellbeing and fitness from pollution, weather switch, and bugs and illness, it presents a necessary info resource to these enthusiastic about the ecology, conservation, and administration of the species.
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Extra info for Biology and Ecology of Norway Spruce
The first complete range map of Norway spruce in central Europe was prepared by RACIBORSKI (1912), and was probably based on the earlier published data of RIVOLI (1884) and STRZELECKI (1894). This map was later modified and supplemented by SZAFER (1916), RACIBORSKI and SZAFER (1919), and KULCZYŃSKI and WIERDAK (1928). All these maps fail to delin- 38 ADAM BORATYŃSKI eate a spruceless belt between the Carpathians and the northern, boreal part of the species contemporary range (Fig. 1). Following World War I, a map of Picea abies distribution in the Polish Kingdom compiled by LASPEYRES was published (PAX 1918).
In the periderm there are isolated regions distinguished from the phellem by the presence of intercellular spaces, called lenticels. These structures permit the entry of air through the periderm. The phellogen of a lenticel is continuous with that of the periderm. The outer loose tissue formed by the lenticular phellogen defines the border of the lenticel. Like the phellem, it is comprised of layers of stained, spongy, and phlobaphene cells (WUTZ 1955). In Picea abies, bark thickness and microscopic structure depend to a high degree on light environment.
The similarity of cone traits among the Bialovezhan populations and the eastern Carpathian populations can also be explained on this basis (BARZDAJN 1996, 1997). 4. Human impacts on the contemporary distribution of Norway spruce in the “spruceless belt” Human activities in the early historical period could have contributed to moderate range expansion of some tree species, including Norway spruce THE CENTRAL EUROPEAN DISJUNCTIONS 45 (ŚRODOŃ 1967b, 1977). However, extensive colonization and intensification of agriculture, resulting in deforestation, began in central Europe about 2000 years ago.
Biology and Ecology of Norway Spruce by Andrzej Środoń, Kazimierz Tobolski (auth.), Mark G. Tjoelker, Adam Boratyński, Władysław Bugała (eds.)