By Tom A. Ranker, Christopher H. Haufler
This e-book offers the main real wisdom approximately ferns and lycophytes. in particular concerning their biology (life cicles, turning out to be, etc.) and evolution (relationship one of the teams, aneuploidy, specialization techniques, etc.). each expert fern researcher needs to get in contact with this e-book.
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Additional resources for Biology and Evolution of Ferns and Lycophytes
Capillus-veneris mediates these phenomena. 4 Phototropism and polarotropism The direction of protonemal growth is controlled by light. Protonemal cells grow toward a red light source (phototropism) or perpendicular to a vibration plane of polarized red light, following a phenomenon known as ‘‘polarotropism” (B¨ unning and Etzold, 1958; Etzold, 1965). 6). Thus, the protonema grows toward the side that absorbs more light. Polarotropism occurs because of the orderly intracellular arrangement of phytochrome molecules attached to the plasma membrane.
6, it is sufﬁcient to note that these cytoskeletal structures play a key role in maintaining a constant diameter, as has been well established in higher plant cells (Shibaoka, 1994). 4 Time courses of interacellular nuclear movement and apical growth during the cell cycle in Adiantum capillus-veneris protonema. A red-light grown protonema was transferred into the dark to induce cell division and the positions of a nucleus and the tip of the protonema were traced under infrared light microscopy.
The transition moments of photoreceptors shown in this diagram occur before light absorption. Circles are cross-sections of protonemata. Arrows and bars indicate the direction of polarized light and their vibration planes. The chloroplast distributions shown in the photographs were those observed from the z axis. ) has been proposed that the red light absorbing form of phytochrome (Pr) has its transition moment parallel to the plasma membrane, but the far-red light absorbing form of phytochrome (Pfr) is perpendicular (Etzold, 1965).
Biology and Evolution of Ferns and Lycophytes by Tom A. Ranker, Christopher H. Haufler