By Barbara Krauthamer
From the past due eighteenth century throughout the finish of the Civil conflict, Choctaw and Chickasaw Indians received, offered, and owned Africans and African americans as slaves, a undeniable fact that endured after the tribes' removing from the Deep South to Indian Territory. The tribes formulated racial and gender ideologies that justified this tradition and marginalized loose black humans within the Indian countries good after the Civil struggle and slavery had ended. throughout the finish of the 19th century, ongoing conflicts between Choctaw, Chickasaw, and U.S. lawmakers left untold numbers of former slaves and their descendants within the Indian international locations with no citizenship in both the Indian international locations or the U.S.. during this groundbreaking examine, Barbara Krauthamer rewrites the historical past of southern slavery, emancipation, race, and citizenship to bare the centrality of local American slaveholders and the black humans they enslaved.
Krauthamer's exam of slavery and emancipation highlights the methods Indian women's gender roles replaced with the coming of slavery and adjusted back after emancipation and divulges advanced dynamics of race that formed the lives of black humans and Indians either prior to and after removal.
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Extra info for Black Slaves, Indian Masters: Slavery, Emancipation, and Citizenship in the Native American South
Southern Indians did not share this outlook on racial identity and slaveholding with the American reformers in their midst. As historian Theda Perdue has illustrated, southern Indians drew more from Native categories of identification than Euro-American conceptions of racial identity and hierarchy, at least when considering their own intimate relationships with Euro-Americans. 58 The sons born to the unions of Euro-American men and Indian women rose to prominence in southern Indian nations not because their fathers were “white” but because they were related to politically powerful men through their mothers.
3 Like other Native peoples, such as the Cherokees, Choctaws and Chickasaws usually put 18 race, gender, and power in the deep south male captives to death after a period of ritualized torture. On one occasion in 1752, for example, Choctaws whipped a captive Chickasaw warrior for three days and planned on burning him to death on the fourth day, but he escaped. ”4 Captive women and children were spared such a bloody fate and instead were adopted into their captor’s kin group to bolster the population and symbolically replace those who had been killed in war.
The number of enslaved Africans imported to North America swelled in the middle of the eighteenth century, with close to 19,000 Africans enslaved in Louisiana by 1769 and nearly 40,000 in South Carolina by 1750. The extensive transatlantic and domestic importation of black slaves into the lower Mississippi valley meant that the black population expanded alongside the burgeoning white population. 13 With this dramatic expansion of the enslaved African population, Choctaws’ and Chickasaws’ roles in the context of colonial slavery shifted.
Black Slaves, Indian Masters: Slavery, Emancipation, and Citizenship in the Native American South by Barbara Krauthamer