By Stephen C. Cowin
This article summarizes the knowledge of bone mechanics with accomplished assurance of the histology, body structure, and the mobilephone and molecular biology of the bone. It covers mechanical suggestions, mechanical houses of cortical and cancellous bone, bone version, and clincally comparable matters. content material: part I. simple biology -- built-in bone tissue body structure : anatomy and body structure / Webster S. S. Lee -- telephone biology of bone / Robert J. Majeska -- Molecular biology ideas to degree skeletal gene expression / Marian F. younger and Suzanne C. Dieudonne -- developing transgenic mice to check skeletal functionality / Marian F. younger and Tianshun Xu -- Bone mineralization / Adele L. Boskey -- part II. suggestions from mechanics and imaging -- Mechanics of fabrics / Stephen C. Cowin -- Experimental ideas for bone mechanics / Charles H. Turner and David B. Burr -- In vivo size of bone deformations utilizing pressure gauges / Susannah P. Fritton and Clinton T. Rubin -- Imaging of bone constitution / Peter Ruegsegger -- part III. Mechanical and architectural homes -- Mechanical homes of cortical bone and cancellous bone tissue / X. Edward Guo -- Viscoelastic houses of cortical bone / Roderic Lakes -- Composite types of bone homes / Eliana Lucchinetti -- Dense bone tissue as a molecular composite / Eliana Lucchinetti -- Quantification of cancellous bone structure / Anders Odgaard -- Elastic constants of cancellous bone / Bert van Rietbergen and Rik Huiskes -- power of trabecular bone / Tony M. Keaveny -- Observations of wear in bone / Karl J. Jepsen, Dwight T. Davy, and Ozan Akkus -- Bone harm mechanics / Dwight T. Davy and Karl J. Jepsen -- Ontogenetic adjustments in compact bone fabric homes / John D. Currey -- Mechanical results of postmortem adjustments, maintenance, and allograft bone remedies / R. Bruce Martin and Neil A. Sharkey -- part IV. circulate of fluids in bone -- Blood circulation in bone / Howart Winet -- Interstitial fluid movement / Melissa L. Knothe Tate -- Bone poroelasticity / Stephen C. Cowin -- Streaming potentials in bone / Solomon R. Pollack -- The intrinsic permeability of cancellous bone / Yves P. Arramon and Eric A. Nauman -- part V. Bone variation -- Pathophysiology of sensible edition of bone in home improvement and service in vivo / Allen E. Goodship and James L. Cunningham -- units and strategies for in vitro mechanical stimulation of bone cells / Thomas D. Brown -- Experiments on mobilephone mechanosensitivity : bone cells as mechanical engineers / Elisabeth H. Burger -- Mechanosensory mechanisms in bone / Stephen C. Cowin and Melvin L. Moss -- The fake premise in Wolff's legislations / Stephen C. Cowin -- Bone modeling and transforming : theories and computation / Richard T. Hart -- Mechanics of bone regeneration / Patrick J. Prendergast and Marjolein C. H. van der Meulen -- part VI. Clinically comparable concerns -- purposes of bone mechanics / Marta L. Villaraga and Catherine M. Ford -- Noninvasive dimension of bone integrity / Jonathan J. Kaufman and Robert S. Siffert -- Bone prostheses and implants / Patrick J. Prendergast -- layout and manufacture of bone substitute scaffolds / Scott J. Hollister ... [et al.]. summary: this article summarizes the certainty of bone mechanics with accomplished assurance of the histology, body structure, and the phone and molecular biology of the bone. It covers mechanical ideas, mechanical homes of cortical and cancellous bone, bone model, and clincally comparable concerns. learn more...
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6 Agents Acting on Osteoclast Regulationa Stimulation Parathyroid hormone (PTH) PTH-related protein b 1,25–Dihydroxy vitamin D 3 Thyroid hormone Glucocorticoidsb Retinoid (Vit A) b Prostaglandin E 2 Interleukin-1,3,6,11 Macrophagecolony–stimulating factor Colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF) Granulocyte/macrophage CSF Transforming growth factor-␣ Transforming growth factor-␤ b Tumor necrosis factor-␣ Epidermal growth factor Leukotrienes Basic fibroblast growth factor Insulin growth factor 1 Bone morphogenetic protein 2,4 5-Lipoxygenase metabolite Osteoprotegerin ligand (ODF, RANKL, TRANCE) Fluoride Stem-cell factor Erythropoietin cFos and cSRC Inhibition Calcitonin Gonadal steriods Interluekin-4,18 Nitric oxide Interferon-␥ Bisphosphonate Osteoprotegerin (OPG, OCIF)e 17␤-Estadiol Bone morphogenetic protein 2 Calcium f PU 1c NFkB1 (p50)c,d NFkB2 (p52)c,d Caspace and adhesion molecules Chaperonin Carbonic anhydrase Proton pump (H3-ATPase) a Regulate genesis, growth, proliferation, function, fusion, attachment, polarization or bone resorption functions.
14). 1 Skeletal Adaptation to Mechanical Usage1,2,8,77–85 Mechanical usage plays an important role in skeletal development and maintenance. Mechanical regulation of bone biology begins at about 5 to 7 weeks of prenatal life when most of the adult skeletal elements and soft tissue has formed. Intermittent skeletal tissue strains caused by muscular contraction modulate cartilage growth, ossification, bone modeling, and remodeling throughout the skeleton. After birth, growth and ossification of the skeleton are strongly influenced by externally applied forces.
17 Double tetracycline labeling of part of a trabecula. The first label was given 10 days before the second and the dog was killed 72 h later. B ϭ trabecular bone; Os ϭ osteoid. Ground section Villanueva stain. Original magnification ϫ 200. , Cell and Tissue Biology, A Textbook of Histology, Urban and Schwarzenberg, Baltimore, 1988. ) process and the fixation of the hydroxyapatite crystals to the collagen. 11–13,37 Several cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, and CSFs) and growth factors (TGF-M␤ family of polypeptides), plateletderived growth factors (PDGFs), fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) are present in bone matrix and can be released to exert their biological effects.
Bone mechanics handbook by Stephen C. Cowin