By Bernd-Dietrich Katthagen
Congenital and purchased bone defects represent a primary challenge of traumatology and orthopedics. so one can treatment those defects it is usually essential to refill the bones operatively with appropriate ingredients. lately, so-called bone substitutes (collagen, gelatine, bone matrix, calcium phospate, hydroxyapatite) have additionally been urged. Following an introductory presentation of bone regeneration and transplants, those substitutes are mentioned the following in a accomplished survey of the literature. specific awareness is given to the importance of mineral substance akin to hydroxyapatite, in an effort to unquestionably discover a position in bone surgical procedure due to its amazing bioactivity and biotolerance. The implants tested also are of value for maxillofacial surgical procedure and dentistry. The histologic options within the staining of undecalcified bone arrangements and in histomorphometry are awarded in a distinct chapter.
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Extra info for Bone Regeneration with Bone Substitutes: An Animal Study
On the other hand, we know that bone is resorbed again unless it is subjected to mechanical loads. The efficiency of mechanical load transmission from the bone through the implant to the regenerated bone within the implant remains doubtful. The implant has inadequate long-term flexural strength, in spite of the high compressive strength and tensile strength for low-porosity materials. Implants exposed to long-term mechanical loads are therefore bound to fail when the mechanical load increases. Therefore, for many indications requiring implants of bone-replacement materials, the ideal approach is not long-term or permanent bone replacement, but the stimulation of regeneration, in order to fill the defect with the body's own bone.
It was found to be very suitable for quantitative histological evaluation of the basic components and biomaterials used in animal experiments. The possibility of performing a control experiment by simultaneously placing a defect on the contralateral side proved to be a special advantage of the test system, particularly when the control cavity in the opposite limb was left open to show uninfluenced, natural bone regeneration. Nizard's initial investigations (1981) first showed that uninfluenced healing of the defect cavity generally leads predominantly to marrow regeneration, and that only a little bone regeneration at the edges occurs.
Knofler wrote in 1978 that the only investment required to set up a bone bank was the purcbase of a deep-freezing cabinet or a mediumsized deep-freezer, and that the operating costs were minimal. In contrast, Tomford et al. (1983) discussed their careful selection of transplant material. The following basic criteria were used to establish the suitability of a donor: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. No history of infection Afebrile condition during hospitalisation Artificial respiration not longer than 72 h Sterile blood and urine cultures No use of intravenous drugs No steroid therapy No hepatitis No malignant tumours A test for contamination was required for all excised bone transplants.
Bone Regeneration with Bone Substitutes: An Animal Study by Bernd-Dietrich Katthagen