By Steven S. Zumdahl
Chemical ideas fifth version via Peter W. Atkins. W.H. Freeman,2010 (
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The molecular constitution hypothesis--that a molecule is a suite of atoms associated by means of a community of bonds-- offers the significant technique of ordering and classifying observations in chemistry. in spite of the fact that this speculation isn't really comparable on to the physics which governs the motions of atomic nuclei and electrons.
Prof. Dr. -Ing. Reinhard Seeling - Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen
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P. Bissinger, M. Dadalas, K. Hintzer, L. Mayer, W. Schwertfeger and T. Zipplies, EP2069407, 2006, 3M. 70. R. A. Wille, M. Durali, L. Hedhli, R. Amin-Sanayei and J. Schmidhauser, EP 1591461, 2004, Atofina. 71. K. Hintzer, H. Kaspar, H. Traunspurger and T. Zipplies, WO 2007/ 120348, 2006, 3M. 72. T. Zipplies, K. Hintzer, M. Dadalas, O. Frey and H. Lochhaas, WO 2011/ 014715, 2010, 3M. 73. H. Kaspar, K. Hintzer, G. Dewitte and W. Schwertfeger, EP 1392744, 2002, 3M. ¨hr, EP 1556426, 2009, 3M. 74. H.
61–63 Meanwhile, most fluoropolymer manufacturers have been pursuing PFOA replacements. 5 Major applications of fluoropolymers. 1039/9781782629368-00001 Industrial Aspects of Fluorinated Oligomers and Polymers 21 3M [NH4][CF3-O-(CF2)3-O-CFH-CF2CO2] (ADONA) Asahi Glass [NH4][CF3-CF2-O-CF2-CF2-O-CF2-CO2] Daikin Industries (APFDO) CF3 CF3 | | [NH4][CF3-O-CF-CF2-O-CF-CO2] E. I. 9 PFOA replacements. 2 Containment Strategy CF3 | [NH4][CF3-CF2-CF2-O-CF-CO2] Since the beginning of the 1990s, Dyneon (previously owned by Hoechst and now part of 3M) was already pioneering potential options to recover/remove and recycle fluorinated emulsifiers, including PFOA, from oﬀ-gases, waste water streams, aqueous dispersions and products.
Koike and Y. Koke, Handbook of Fluoropolymer Science and Technology, ed. D. Smith, S. Iacono and S. , 2014, ch. 16. 12. R. E. Banks, Fluorocarbons and Their Derivatives, Mac Donald Technical & Scientific, London, 1970. 13. R. E. Banks, B. E. Smart and J. C. Tatlow, Organofluorine Chemistry, Principles and Commercial Applications, Plenum Press, New York, 1994. 14. T. Shimizu, Modern Fluoropolymers, ed. J. , New York, 1997, ch. 26. 15. G. Piessens, J. De Witte and R. Dams, Recent developments in fluorochemical intermediates, Proceedings BACS Symposium, Essen, 1995.
Chemical Principles, Fifth Edition by Steven S. Zumdahl