By Steven S. Zumdahl, Susan A. Zumdahl
CHEMISTRY permits the reader to benefit chemistry fundamentals fast and simply through emphasizing a considerate process outfitted on challenge fixing. For the 8th version, authors Steven and Susan Zumdahl have prolonged this process by way of emphasizing problem-solving options in the Examples and in the course of the textual content narrative. CHEMISTRY speaks on to the reader approximately how you can process and clear up chemical problems--to learn how to imagine like a chemist--so that they could follow the method of problem-solving to all features in their lives.
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The molecular constitution hypothesis--that a molecule is a set of atoms associated through a community of bonds-- offers the important technique of ordering and classifying observations in chemistry. even though this speculation isn't really similar on to the physics which governs the motions of atomic nuclei and electrons.
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Extra info for Chemistry, 8th Edition
Accuracy refers to the agreement of a particular value with the true value. Precision refers to the degree of agreement among several measurements of the same quantity. Precision reflects the reproducibility of a given type of measurement. The difference between these terms is illustrated by the results of three different dart throws shown in Fig. 8. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. 8 The results of several dart throws show the difference between precise and accurate.
Performing experiments. An experiment is carried out to test a hypothesis. This involves gathering new information that enables a scientist to decide whether the hypothesis is valid—that is, whether it is supported by the new information learned from the experiment. Experiments always produce new observations, and this brings the process back to the beginning again. 3 The fundamental steps of the scientific method. To understand a given phenomenon, these steps are repeated many times, gradually accumulating the knowledge necessary to provide a possible explanation of the phenomenon.
Captive zeros are always significant figures. b. Captive zeros are zeros between nonzero digits. These always count as significant figures. 008 has four significant figures. Trailing zeros are sometimes significant figures. c. Trailing zeros are zeros at the right end of the number. They are significant only if the number contains a decimal point. 00 ϫ 102 has three significant figures. The number one hundred written as 100. also has three significant figures. Exact numbers never limit the number of significant figures in a calculation.
Chemistry, 8th Edition by Steven S. Zumdahl, Susan A. Zumdahl